With the current El Niño in full force, researchers are still puzzling over the 2020–2023 La Niña that upended current understanding of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics. The three consecutive years of La Niña conditions – a rare “triple-dip” phenomenon – had widespread impacts on the ocean and climate across the globe. While triple-dip La Niñas have happened before, this one was notable in that it did not conform to conventional theories on how these extended La Niñas develop, leaving scientists searching for clues to explain what caused it.
Accepted for publication: Biogeochemical anomalies at two southern California Current System moorings during the 2014‐16 Warm Anomaly‐El Niño sequence
Available online 6 September 2019
The 2014‐16 Pacific Warm Anomaly‐El Niño sequence significantly changed ocean conditions in the California Current System (CCS), but impacts of these anomalies on nutrients, chlorophyll‐a, and pH, and comparisons to past El Niño events, have not been well described. We examined nine years (2010‐2018) of data from two ocean moorings that provide hourly measurements at fixed locations in the southern CCS, allowing us to determine both sub‐seasonal and multi‐year ecosystem changes.